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Christopher R. Brigham
,
Waqas A. Buttar
,
Mark Bucksbaum
, and
James B. Talmage

conditions the agent to optimize its actions to maximize cumulative reward. 24 Deep learning (DL) represents a class of ML models composed of multilayered neural networks inspired by the architecture of the human brain. 25 It represents a transformative advance in AI. It involves multilayered neural networks modeled loosely after the mammalian visual cortex. Each layer progressively extracts higher-level features from the raw input data. This hierarchical learning allows the modeling of highly complex relationships and patterns. 26 Neural networks have proven adept

in AMA Guides® Newsletter
Christopher R. Brigham
,
Waqas A. Buttar
,
Mark Bucksbaum
, and
James B. Talmage

architecture. 11 The transformer architecture is considered a breakthrough in deep learning (DL). It utilizes an attention mechanism that allows the model to focus on the most relevant words or tokens when generating text. This enables capturing long-range dependencies between words and generating coherent, logical narratives. Large language models are first pretrained, unsupervised on massive corpora of textual data, including books, articles, and websites, which exposes them to diverse language styles, factual information, reasoning patterns, and common-sense concepts

in AMA Guides® Newsletter