There are many potential causes of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), including occupational and avocational activities, a variety of diseases, trauma, and lifestyle. In brief, the median nerve may be compressed if the tunnel is narrowed, its contents increased, or some combination thereof. The lifetime incidence of CTS is 10%, and its incidence, or at least recognition of the condition, has been increasing over the last two decades. In 50% of the cases where CTS occurs in one wrist, it eventually develops on the other side. Patients are usually between 30 and 60 years of age when diagnosed, and women are affected three to five times as often as men.

In terms of occupational causes, retrospective case-control (hence, lower quality) studies have reported a positive association between CTS and high repetition, high force, vibration exposure, and poor posture. The...

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