This is the second in a series of articles that address pain complaints and mental illness. The AMA Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, Fifth Edition, should not be used if the pain presentation is attributable to mental illness, and the evaluator must distinguish between presentations that should be evaluated using Chapter 18, Pain, and those that should be evaluated using Chapter 14, Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Chapter 14 is unique in its avoidance of numerical impairment ratings but has been praised for its internal consistency and emphasis on following the current edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The only section of Chapter 14 that discusses pain complaints is somatoform pain disorders, which presents several problems, including nomenclature (the phrase somatoform pain disorder is antiquated and disappeared from DSM in 1994, and other forms of mental illness are not somatoform disorders). The DSM is the foundation of the evaluation process, and its discussion of any given mental illness is the gold standard definition of that illness; therefore, any attempt to evaluate pain complaints as a possible manifestation of mental illness must use DSM protocols. The article concludes with a discussion of the components of the evaluation process: awareness of the most prominent diagnostic possibilities; presenting complaints; health history; social history; review of records; family history; collateral interviews; and psychological testing.