Cognitive Screening Tools
Sarah H. Gulick
Search for other papers by Sarah H. Gulick in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Steven Mandel
Search for other papers by Steven Mandel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Edward A. Maitz
Search for other papers by Edward A. Maitz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Christopher R. Brigham
Search for other papers by Christopher R. Brigham in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Lorne K. Direnfeld
Search for other papers by Lorne K. Direnfeld in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Physicians performing impairment evaluations on patients with cognitive complaints and possible central nervous system disorders should perform a clinical mental status assessment. Assessing cognitive complaints efficiently, in a systematic and supportable way, can be challenging. The AMA Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment specifies that objective criteria are important to consider when assessing impairment. Physicians may choose to use standardized cognitive screening tests (cognitive screeners) as a relatively quick, practical tool to initially assess patients and aid in decision making. Several cognitive screeners will be discussed in detail below. A patient's performance on such tests may indicate that more comprehensive testing is needed. Cognitive screeners have limitations and are not designed to assess symptom validity or the extent to which psychological factors may contribute to cognitive complaints. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment may be indicated in these situations and when the screeners demonstrate findings of potential concern help define MMI.

  • 1.

    Tariq SH, Tumosa N, Chibnall JT, et al. Comparison of the Saint Louis University Mental Status examination and the Mini-Mental State Examination for detecting dementia and mild neurocognitive disorder—a pilot study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14 (11):900910. doi:10.1097/01.jgp.0000221510.33817.86.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(4):695699. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53221.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR.Mini-mental state.” J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12(3):189198.

  • 4.

    Perneczky R, Wagenpfeil S, Komossa K, et al. Mapping scores onto stages: mini-mental state examination and clinical dementia rating. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14 (2):139144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Mishra K, Purohit D, Sharma S. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Score: a screening tool for cognitive function in traumatic brain injury (TBI) population. J Neurol Neuromedicine. 2020;5 (3):3539. doi:10.29245/2572.942x/2020/3.1238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    de Guise E, LeBlanc J, Champoux M-C, et al. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment after traumatic brain injury: an early predictive study. Brain Inj. 2013;27 (12):14281434. doi:10.3109/02699052.2013.835867.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Feeney J, Savva GM, O'Regan C, et al. Measurement error, reliability, and minimum detectable change in the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Color Trails Test among community living middle-aged and older adults. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;53 (3):11071114. doi:10.3233/jad-160248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Fu C, Jin X, Chen B, et al. Comparison of the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment executive subtests in detecting post-stroke cognitive impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2017;17 (12):23292335. doi:10.1111/ggi.13069.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Arévalo SP, Kress J, Rodriguez FS. Validity of cognitive assessment tools for older adult Hispanics: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019;68(4):882888. doi:10.1111/jgs.16300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Breton A, Casey D, Arnaoutoglou NA. Cognitive tests for the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the prodromal stage of dementia: meta–analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018;34(2):233242. doi:10.1002/gps.5016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Cameron J, Worrall-Carter L, Page K, et al. Screening for mild cognitive impairment in patients with heart failure: Montreal Cognitive Assessment versus Mini Mental State Exam. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2012;12 (3):252260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Ciesielska N, Soko?owski R, Mazur E, et al. Is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test better suited than the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) detection among people aged over 60? meta-analysis. Psychiatria Polska. 2016;50 (5):10391052. doi:10.12740/pp/45368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    13. Cumming TB, Churilov L, Linden T, Bernhardt J. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination are both valid cognitive tools in stroke. Acta Neurol Scand. 2013;128 (2):122129. doi:10.1111/ane.12084.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Howland M, Tatsuoka C, Smyth KA, Sajatovic M. Detecting change over time: a comparison of the SLUMS Examination and the MMSE in older adults at risk for cognitive decline. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2016;22 (5):413419. doi:10.1111/cns.12515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Feliciano L, Horning SM, Klebe KJ, et al. Utility of the SLUMS as a cognitive screening tool among a nonveteran sample of older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;21 (7):623630. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.024.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Buckingham DN, Mackor KM, Miller RM, et al. Comparing the cognitive screening tools: MMSE and SLUMS. Pure Insights. 2013;2(1):3.

  • 17.

    Cummings-Vaughn LA, Chavakula NN, Malmstrom TK, et al. Veterans Affairs Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination compared with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Short Test of Mental Status. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62(7):13411346. doi:10.1111/jgs.12874.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Belluck P. “I feel like I have dementia”: brain fog plagues Covid survivors. New York Times. Published October 11, 2020; updated January 8, 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/11/health/covid-survivors.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 105 105 105
Full Text Views 46 46 46
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
Save